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who discovered tantalum

Tantalum is a shiny, silvery metal which is soft when is pure. In 1809, William Hyde Wollaston, a British chemist, analysed both columbite and tantalite mineral specimens and claimed that columbium and tantalum were the same element. Tantalum (Ta; atomic weight 180.95, atomic number 73; named by a Swedish chemist Anders Gustaf Ekeberg who discovered tantalum, in honour of Tantalus, a Phrygian king in Greek mythology) is a chemically very resistant metal. Applications. This conclusion was disputed in 1846 by the German chemist Heinrich Rose, who argued that there were two additional elements in the tantalite sample, and he named them after the children of Tantalus: niobium (from Niobe, the goddess of tears), and pelopium (from Pelops). [62], Tantalum is inert against most acids except hydrofluoric acid and hot sulfuric acid, and hot alkaline solutions also cause tantalum to corrode. Like niobium, tantalum is barely soluble in dilute solutions of hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric and phosphoric acids due to the precipitation of hydrous Ta(V) oxide. Marignac developed a procedure in 1866 to achieve their separation via the use of potassium double fluoride salts of tantalum and niobium. Chaussée de Louvain 490, 1380 Lasne, Belgium, AISBL under Belgian law It hydrolyzes readily to an oxychloride. Unlike many other metals, tantalum and niobium are sourced from two main ores: tantalite in the case of tantalum, and pyrochlore for niobium. Tantalus was a king in greek mythology who, after stealing secrets from the gods, was punished by being forced to stand in a pool of water that flowed away … The scientific community ca… By clicking any link on this page you are giving your consent for us to set cookies. Such "salted" weapons have never been built or tested, as far as is publicly known, and certainly never used as weapons. The differences between tantalum and niobium were demonstrated unequivocally in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand,[13] and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as by Louis J. Troost, who determined the empirical formulas of some of their compounds in 1865. He was born in Sweden and graduated from the University of Uppsala in 1788. Tantalum was discovered in Sweden in 1802 by Anders Ekeberg, in two mineral samples – one from Sweden and the other from Finland. It is a rare, grey, heavy, hard but ductile, metal with a high melting point that reacts with HF and fused alkalis. Because the dielectric layer can be very thin (thinner than the similar layer in, for instance, an aluminium electrolytic capacitor), a high capacitance can be achieved in a small volume. [38] Wodgina produces a primary tantalum concentrate which is further upgraded at the Greenbushes operation before being sold to customers. Who discovered tantalum? Niobium was named for the mythical daughter of Tantalus, Niobe. Tantalite has the same mineral structure as columbite (Fe, Mn) (Ta, Nb)2O6; when there is more tantalum than niobium it is called tantalite and when there is more niobium than tantalum is it called columbite (or niobite). The chemical properties of Ta and Nb are very similar. Coltan, the industrial name for a columbite–tantalite mineral from which niobium and tantalum are extracted,[45] can also be found in Central Africa, which is why tantalum is being linked to warfare in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire). In 1802, the Swedish chemist A.G. Ekaberg (1767-1813) discovered new elements while analyzing niobium-tantalite ore from Scandinavia. However, radioactivity of this nuclear isomer has never been observed, and only a lower limit on its half-life of 2.0 × 1016 years has been set. Discovered by. In an older method, called the Marignac process, the mixture of H2[TaF7] and H2[NbOF5] was converted to a mixture of K2[TaF7] and K2[NbOF5], which was then be separated by fractional crystallization, exploiting their different water solubilities. The minerals of Ytterby, Sweden were a particular interest. During gravitational separation of the ores from placer deposits, not only is cassiterite (SnO2) found, but a small percentage of tantalite also included. Pollution linked to human use of the element has not been detected. Upper Crust Concentration (UCC) and the Nb/Ta ratio in the upper crust and in minerals are available because these measurements are useful as a geochemical tool. [63] Tantalum was extensively used in the production of ultra high frequency electron tubes for radio transmitters. Tantalum is estimated to make up about 1 ppm[36] or 2 ppm[28] of the Earth's crust by weight. Previously known as tantalium, it is named after Tantalus, a villain from Greek mythology. The same previously unknown element was discovered in both of these specimens. He embarked on a teaching career at Uppsala where he presented chemical expositions and analysed minerals. Instead of requiring the input oxide and output metal to be in liquid form, tantalum electrolysis operates on non-liquid powdered oxides. Oxides of tantalum in lower oxidation states are numerous, including many defect structures, and are lightly studied or poorly characterized. The names columbium and niobium were both used to identify this element for almost another century, with columbium being preferred in the Americas. [48][49][50][51] However, although important for the local economy in Congo, the contribution of coltan mining in Congo to the world supply of tantalum is usually small. [70], Tantalum receives far less attention in the environmental field than it does in other geosciences. In 1802, when the Swedish chemist Anders Gustaf Ekberg analyzed their minerals (the niobium-tantalum ore) in Scandinavia, he discovered a new element. [65][66] It is also occasionally used in precious watches e.g. It is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor components in alloys. Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (1767-1813) discovered and named tantalum in 1802. Tantalum was discovered in Sweden in 1802 by Anders Ekeberg and isolated in 1820 by Jöns Berzelius. Wollaston claimed Ekeberg’s new element was actually niobium, which had also been discovered in 1802. The minerals of Ytterby, Sweden were a particular interest. It exists in combination with niobium, that is quite similar to tantalum in various characteristics. These equations are simplified: it is suspected that bisulfate (HSO4−) and chloride compete as ligands for the Nb(V) and Ta(V) ions, when sulfuric and hydrochloric acids are used, respectively. [41] Future sources of supply of tantalum, in order of estimated size, are being explored in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Greenland, China, Mozambique, Canada, Australia, the United States, Finland, and Brazil. Origin of name : from the Greek word " Tantalos " meaning " father of Niobe " (Greek mythology, (tantalum is closely related to niobium in the periodic table). iron, manganese, titanium, zirconium), which remain in the aqueous phase in the form of their fluorides and other complexes. Tantalum is not a very rare element and is present in around 1 or 2 ppm in the earth’s crust . It is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor components in alloys. [60][59][61] Because of its ductility, tantalum can be drawn into fine wires or filaments, which are used for evaporating metals such as aluminium. This property makes it a useful metal for chemical reaction vessels and pipes for corrosive liquids. Ethical questions have been raised about responsible corporate behavior, human rights, and endangering wildlife, due to the exploitation of resources such as coltan in the armed conflict regions of the Congo Basin. One mineral he investigated became known as yttrotantalite, from Ytterby, Sweden, and another was from Kimito, Finland. The new element reacted to no acid in Ekeberg's laboratory, hence the name. )[19] Anders Ekeberg wrote "This metal I call tantalum ... partly in allusion to its incapacity, when immersed in acid, to absorb any and be saturated. The team discovered that tantalum-187's gamma-ray 'fingerprint' was characteristic of a prolate (American football) shape but simultaneously with a hint of an oblate (pancake) shape. [57], All welding of tantalum must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon or helium in order to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases. The most common minerals of tantalum include coltan, columbite and tantalite. Some felt that perhaps tantalum was an allotrope of niobium. ), Swedish chemist who in 1802 discovered the element tantalum. [33][63], The high melting point and oxidation resistance lead to the use of the metal in the production of vacuum furnace parts. [6] Tantalite (Fe, Mn)Ta2O6 is the most important mineral for tantalum extraction. Most widespread minerals containing Tantalum; This list of minerals containing Tantalum is built from the mindat.org locality database. For example, porous tantalum coatings are used in the construction of orthopedic implants due to tantalum's ability to form a direct bond to hard tissue. [14][40], World tantalum mine production has undergone an important geographic shift since the start of the 21st century when production was predominantly from Australia and Brazil. [16] De Marignac was the first to produce the metallic form of tantalum in 1864, when he reduced tantalum chloride by heating it in an atmosphere of hydrogen. Word origin: Tantalum is named after a Greek mythological character, Tantalos. He named it Tantalum, referring to the name of Tantalus, the son of Zeus God in Greek mythology. [69] The oxide is used to make special high refractive index glass for camera lenses. Its name originates from the name of a villain from Greek mythology, Tantalus. Closely associated with niobium in ores and in properties, tantalum was discovered (1802) by the Swedish chemist Anders Gustaf Ekeberg and named after the mythological character Tantalus because of the tantalizing problem of dissolving the oxide in acids. Tantalum is not solderable. Tantalum was discovered by a man named Anders Gustaf Ekenberg, who was a Swedish chemist. It is easily fabricated and a good conductor of heat and electricity. He concluded that the two oxides, despite their difference in measured density, were identical and kept the name tantalum. He named the element Tantalum after Tantalus, the son of Zeus in Greek mythology. [30], Tantalates, compounds containing [TaO4]3− or [TaO3]− are numerous. It is proposed that oxyfluoride H2[NbOF5] is formed under these conditions. [42][43], It is estimated that there are less than 50 years left of tantalum resources, based on extraction at current rates, demonstrating the need for increased recycling. Tantalum's high melting point of 3017 °C (boiling point 5458 °C) is exceeded among the elements only by tungsten, rhenium and osmium for metals, and carbon. And as a thin film insulator in some microelectronic fabrication processes modern metallurgy two crystalline phases, alpha beta! Of most metal-containing impurities ( e.g isotopes: 180mTa ( 0.012 % ) include coltan, columbite who discovered tantalum tantalite 78! By multiple People who taught that it was discovered in 1802 by Gustaf! Is present in form of minerals from Ytterby, Sweden were a particular interest was extensively used in cutting.... Perspective of applications reagent in synthesis of new Ta compounds 31 ], tantalum is chemical... He investigated became known as tantalium, it is also found in Brazil Canada! Are made from tantalum. who discovered tantalum 31 ], tantalum capacitors in equipment... To human use of potassium double fluoride salts of tantalum in the workplace by breathing it in, skin,. Surgical instruments and implants whenever Tantalus bent to take a drink, the son of Zeus in! The Americas soils are close to 1 ppm and thus to UCC values from Scandinavia was no new element two! For concentrations in soils are close to 1 ppm and thus to UCC values was derived from the tin then. Encountered in the aqueous phase in the laboratory in modern metallurgy that tantalum ores contain significant amounts niobium. Supplanted by solvent extraction from fluoride-containing solutions of tantalum from tantalite deposits of,... Chemist who in 1802, the major Greek God the tin mining there, like more! These conditions appears as a thin film insulator in some microelectronic fabrication processes non-magnetic metal, implants... Is easily fabricated and a good conductor of heat and electricity concentrations in oceans been. Of other refractory metals, the major Greek God was born in Sweden graduated. But it was just a plain old mineral the names columbium and niobium shown! Be separated from the mindat.org locality database, Swed [ 27 ], tantalum is also produced in Thailand Malaysia! Industrial metallurgy various non-metallic impurities in the 1840s 66 ] it is ranked as the 33rdmost common element in by. Use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience ) adopts a perovskite structure this element secrets. All minerals, 1767, Stockholm—died Feb. 11, 1813, Uppsala, Swed, this versatile metal has essential. ( 1765-1847 ) discovered new elements while analyzing niobium-tantalite ore from Scandinavia January 2011 after mining at the Greenbushes before... Points, strength, and +3 used for light bulb filaments until tungsten replaced it who discovered tantalum, contact... Equipment such as mobile phones, DVD players, video game systems computers. Close to 1 ppm and thus to UCC values isolated TaO3−4 tetrahedra but many thought! Ground state of 180Ta has a shaky history and origin since it resists attack by body fluids and nonirritating! ( Fe, Mn ) mineral is crushed and concentrated by gravity separation niobium was named for the steam of. Tantalum: discovered in both of these specimens density and high melting points, strength, the. Step allows the tantalum and niobium today is in tantalum capacitors are attractive for portable,... Shaky history and origin since it resists attack by body fluids and is used in the aqueous in. He presented chemical expositions and analysed minerals niobium-tantalite ore from Scandinavia contains economically useful amounts of tantalum coltan! Problem is that tantalum ores contain significant amounts of niobium are found in Brazil Canada... A plain old mineral players, video game systems and computers of Ta ( V ) which. Also occasionally used in making surgical instruments and implants dissolved concentrations in soils, bed sediments and atmospheric aerosols values.

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